Overview

Code4rena (C4) is an open organization consisting of security researchers, auditors, developers, and individuals with domain expertise in smart contracts.

A C4 code contest is an event in which community participants, referred to as Wardens, review, audit, or analyze smart contract logic in exchange for a bounty provided by sponsoring projects.

During the code contest outlined in this document, C4 conducted an analysis of Sublime contest smart contract system written in Solidity. The code contest took place between December 9—December 15 2021.

Wardens

21 Wardens contributed reports to the Sublime contest:

1. cmichel
2. WatchPug (jtp and ming)
3. leastwood
4. 0x0x0x
5. certora
6. harleythedog
7. kemmio
8. hyh
9. 0x1f8b
10. gpersoon
11. 0xngndev
12. TomFrenchBlockchain
13. sirhashalot
14. Jujic
15. broccolirob
16. pedroais
17. robee
18. defsec
19. pmerkleplant
20. gzeon
21. p4st13r4 (0xb4bb4, 0x69e8)

This contest was judged by Oxean.

Final report assembled by tealtiger, CloudEllie, and liveactionllama.

Summary

The C4 analysis yielded an aggregated total of 43 unique vulnerabilities and 93 total findings. All of the issues presented here are linked back to their original finding.

Of these vulnerabilities, 11 received a risk rating in the category of HIGH severity, 8 received a risk rating in the category of MEDIUM severity, and 24 received a risk rating in the category of LOW severity.

C4 analysis also identified 18 non-critical recommendations and 32 gas optimizations.

Scope

The code under review can be found within the C4 Sublime contest repository, and is composed of 16 smart contracts written in the Solidity programming language and includes 1,689 lines of Solidity code.

Severity Criteria

C4 assesses the severity of disclosed vulnerabilities according to a methodology based on OWASP standards.

Vulnerabilities are divided into three primary risk categories: high, medium, and low.

High-level considerations for vulnerabilities span the following key areas when conducting assessments:

• Malicious Input Handling
• Escalation of privileges
• Arithmetic
• Gas use

Further information regarding the severity criteria referenced throughout the submission review process, please refer to the documentation provided on the C4 website.

High Risk Findings (11)

[H-01] In CreditLine#_borrowTokensToLiquidate, oracle is used wrong way

Submitted by 0x0x0x

Current implementation to get the price is as follows:

(uint256 _ratioOfPrices, uint256 _decimals) = IPriceOracle(priceOracle).getLatestPrice(_borrowAsset, _collateralAsset);

https://github.com/code-423n4/2021-12-sublime/blob/9df1b7c4247f8631647c7627a8da9bdc16db8b11/contracts/CreditLine/CreditLine.sol#L1050

But it should not consult borrowToken / collateralToken, rather it should consult the inverse of this result. As a consequence, in liquidate the liquidator/lender can lose/gain funds as a result of this miscalculation.

Mitigation step

Replace it with

(uint256 _ratioOfPrices, uint256 _decimals) = IPriceOracle(priceOracle).getLatestPrice(_collateralAsset, _borrowAsset);

ritik99 (Sublime) confirmed

[H-02] Wrong returns of SavingsAccountUtil.depositFromSavingsAccount() can cause fund loss

Submitted by WatchPug

The function SavingsAccountUtil.depositFromSavingsAccount() is expected to return the number of equivalent shares for given _asset.

https://github.com/code-423n4/2021-12-sublime/blob/9df1b7c4247f8631647c7627a8da9bdc16db8b11/contracts/Pool/Pool.sol#L225-L267

/**
* @notice internal function used to get amount of collateral deposited to the pool
* @param _fromSavingsAccount if true, collateral is transferred from _sender's savings account, if false, it is transferred from _sender's wallet
* @param _toSavingsAccount if true, collateral is transferred to pool's savings account, if false, it is withdrawn from _sender's savings account
* @param _asset address of the asset to be deposited
* @param _amount amount of tokens to be deposited in the pool
* @param _poolSavingsStrategy address of the saving strategy used for collateral deposit
* @param _depositFrom address which makes the deposit
* @param _depositTo address to which the tokens are deposited
* @return _sharesReceived number of equivalent shares for given _asset
*/
function _deposit(
bool _fromSavingsAccount,
bool _toSavingsAccount,
uint256 _amount,
) internal returns (uint256 _sharesReceived) {
if (_fromSavingsAccount) {
ISavingsAccount(IPoolFactory(poolFactory).savingsAccount()),
_depositFrom,
_depositTo,
_amount,
_asset,
_poolSavingsStrategy,
true,
_toSavingsAccount
);
} else {
ISavingsAccount(IPoolFactory(poolFactory).savingsAccount()),
_depositFrom,
_depositTo,
_amount,
_asset,
_toSavingsAccount,
_poolSavingsStrategy
);
}
}

However, since savingsAccountTransfer() does not return the result of _savingsAccount.transfer(), but returned _amount instead, which means that SavingsAccountUtil.depositFromSavingsAccount() may not return the actual shares (when pps is not 1).

https://github.com/code-423n4/2021-12-sublime/blob/9df1b7c4247f8631647c7627a8da9bdc16db8b11/contracts/SavingsAccount/SavingsAccountUtil.sol#L11-L26

function depositFromSavingsAccount(
ISavingsAccount _savingsAccount,
uint256 _amount,
bool _withdrawShares,
bool _toSavingsAccount
) internal returns (uint256) {
if (_toSavingsAccount) {
return savingsAccountTransfer(_savingsAccount, _from, _to, _amount, _token, _strategy);
} else {
return withdrawFromSavingsAccount(_savingsAccount, _from, _to, _amount, _token, _strategy, _withdrawShares);
}
}

https://github.com/code-423n4/2021-12-sublime/blob/9df1b7c4247f8631647c7627a8da9bdc16db8b11/contracts/SavingsAccount/SavingsAccountUtil.sol#L66-L80

function savingsAccountTransfer(
ISavingsAccount _savingsAccount,
uint256 _amount,
) internal returns (uint256) {
_savingsAccount.transfer(_amount, _token, _strategy, _to);
} else {
_savingsAccount.transferFrom(_amount, _token, _strategy, _from, _to);
}
return _amount;
}

As a result, the recorded _sharesReceived can be wrong.

https://github.com/code-423n4/2021-12-sublime/blob/9df1b7c4247f8631647c7627a8da9bdc16db8b11/contracts/Pool/Pool.sol#L207-L223

function _depositCollateral(
uint256 _amount,
bool _transferFromSavingsAccount
) internal nonReentrant {
_transferFromSavingsAccount,
true,
poolConstants.collateralAsset,
_amount,
poolConstants.poolSavingsStrategy,
_depositor,
);
}
PoC

Given:

• the price per share of yearn USDC vault is 1.2
• Alice deposited 12,000 USDC to yearn strategy, received 10,000 share tokens;
• Alice created a pool, and added all the 12,000 USDC from the saving account as collateral; The recorded CollateralAdded got the wrong number: 12000 which should be 10000;
• Alice failed to borrow money with the pool and tries to cancelPool(), it fails as the recorded collateral shares are more than the actual collateral.

As a result, Alice has lost all the 12,000 USDC.

If Alice managed to borrow with the pool, when the loan defaults, the liquidation will also fail, and cause fund loss to the lenders.

Recommendation

Change to:

function savingsAccountTransfer(
ISavingsAccount _savingsAccount,
uint256 _amount,
) internal returns (uint256) {
return _savingsAccount.transfer(_amount, _token, _strategy, _to);
} else {
return _savingsAccount.transferFrom(_amount, _token, _strategy, _from, _to);
}
}

ritik99 (Sublime) confirmed

[H-03] denial of service

Submitted by certora

https://github.com/code-423n4/2021-12-sublime/blob/main/contracts/Pool/Pool.sol#L645 if the borrow token is address(0) (ether), and someone calls withdrawLiquidity, it calls SavingsAccountUtil.transferTokens which will transfer to msg.sender, msg.value (of withdrawLiquidity, because it’s an internal function). In other words, the liquidity provided will pay to themselves and their liquidity tokens will still be burned. therefore they will never be able to get their funds back.

the bug is in https://github.com/code-423n4/2021-12-sublime/blob/main/contracts/SavingsAccount/SavingsAccountUtil.sol It is wrong to use msg.value in transferTokens because it’ll be the msg.value of the calling function. therefore every transfer of ether using this function is wrong and dangerous, the solution is to remove all msg.value from this function and just transfer _amount regularly.

[H-04] Yearn token <> shares conversion decimal issue

Submitted by cmichel

The yearn strategy YearnYield converts shares to tokens by doing pricePerFullShare * shares / 1e18:

function getTokensForShares(uint256 shares, address asset) public view override returns (uint256 amount) {
if (shares == 0) return 0;
// @audit should divided by vaultDecimals
amount = IyVault(liquidityToken[asset]).getPricePerFullShare().mul(shares).div(1e18);
}

But Yearn’s getPricePerFullShare seems to be in vault.decimals() precision, i.e., it should convert it as pricePerFullShare * shares / (10 ** vault.decimals()). The vault decimals are the same as the underlying token decimals

Impact

The token and shares conversions do not work correctly for underlying tokens that do not have 18 decimals. Too much or too little might be paid out leading to a loss for either the protocol or user.

Divide by 10**vault.decimals() instead of 1e18 in getTokensForShares. Apply a similar fix in getSharesForTokens.

[H-05] Aave’s share tokens are rebasing breaking current strategy code

Submitted by cmichel, also found by WatchPug and leastwood

When depositing into Aave through the AaveYield.lockTokens contract strategy, one receives the sharesReceived amount corresponding to the diff of aToken balance, which is just always the deposited amount as aave is a rebasing token and 1.0 aToken = 1.0 underlying at each deposit / withdrawal.

Note that this sharesReceived (the underlying deposit amount) is cached in a balanceInShares map in SavingsAccount.deposit which makes this share static and not dynamically rebasing anymore:

function deposit(
uint256 _amount,
) external payable override nonReentrant returns (uint256) {
uint256 _sharesReceived = _deposit(_amount, _token, _strategy);
}

function getTokensForShares(uint256 shares, address asset) public view override returns (uint256 amount) {
if (shares == 0) return 0;

(, , , , , , , uint256 liquidityIndex, , ) = IProtocolDataProvider(protocolDataProvider).getReserveData(asset);

// @audit-info tries to do (user shares / total shares) * underlying amount where underlying amount = scaledBalance * liquidityIndex
);
}

However, the getTokensForShares function uses a rebasing total share supply of IERC20(aToken).balanceOf(this).

POC
• SavingsAccount deposits 1000 DAI for user and user receives 1000 aDAI as shares. These shares are cached in balanceInShares[user][dai][aave].
• Time passes, Aave accrues interest for lenders, and the initial 1000 aTokens balance has rebased to 1200 aTokens
• SavingsAccount withdraws 1000 aDAI shares for user which calls AaveYield.unlockTokens. The user receives only 1000 DAI. The interest owed to the user is not paid out.
• Note that getTokensForShares also returns the wrong amount as 1200 * 1000 / 1200 = 1000

Impact

Interest is not paid out to users. Pool collateral is measured without the interest accrued as it uses getTokensForShares which will lead to early liquidations and further loss.

If the user shares are not rebasing, you cannot have the “total shares supply” (the shares in the contract) be rebasing as in getTokensForShares. Also withdrawing the share amount directly from Aave as in _withdrawERC does not withdraw the yield. A fix could be to create a non-rebasing wrapper LP token that is paid out to the user proportional to the current strategy TVL at time of user deposit.

ritik99 (Sublime) acknowledged:

We’ve been aware of this issue for some time.. ended up including the AaveYield file in the scope by mistake! We do not plan to include the Aave strategy in our launch (we maintain a strategy registry that allows us to add/drop yield strategies), and as noted in #128, we will be utilizing wrapper contracts that mimics behaviour of non-rebasing LP tokens

0xean (judge) commented:

going to side with the warden since they believed the contract to be in scope and it’s a valid concern.

[H-06] Anyone can liquidate credit line when autoLiquidation is false without supplying borrow tokens

Submitted by harleythedog

Impact

It is intended that if a credit line has autoLiquidation as false, then only the lender can be the liquidator (see docs here: https://docs.sublime.finance/sublime-docs/smart-contracts/creditlines). However, this is not correctly implemented, and anyone can liquidate a position that has autoLiquidation set to false.

Even worse, when autoLiquidation is set to false, the liquidator does not have to supply the initial amount of borrow tokens (determined by _borrowTokensToLiquidate) that normally have to be transferred when autoLiquidation is true. This means that the liquidator will be sent all of the collateral that is supposed to be sent to the lender, so this represents a huge loss to the lender. Since the lender will lose all of the collateral that they are owed, this is a high severity issue.

Proof of Concept

The current implementation of liquidate is here: https://github.com/code-423n4/2021-12-sublime/blob/9df1b7c4247f8631647c7627a8da9bdc16db8b11/contracts/CreditLine/CreditLine.sol#L996.

Notice that the autoLiquidation value is only used in one place within this function, which is in this segment of the code:

...
if (creditLineConstants[_id].autoLiquidation && _lender != msg.sender) {
uint256 _borrowTokens = _borrowTokensToLiquidate(_borrowAsset, _collateralAsset, _totalCollateralTokens);
uint256 _returnETH = msg.value.sub(_borrowTokens, 'Insufficient ETH to liquidate');
if (_returnETH != 0) {
(bool success, ) = msg.sender.call{value: _returnETH}('');
require(success, 'Transfer fail');
}
} else {
IERC20(_borrowAsset).safeTransferFrom(msg.sender, _lender, _borrowTokens);
}
}

_transferCollateral(_id, _collateralAsset, _totalCollateralTokens, _toSavingsAccount);
emit  CreditLineLiquidated(_id, msg.sender);
}

So, if autoLiquidation is false, the code inside of the if statement will simply not be executed, and there are no further checks that the sender HAS to be the lender if autoLiquidation is false. This means that anyone can liquidate a non-autoLiquidation credit line, and receive all of the collateral without first transferring the necessary borrow tokens.

For a further proof of concept, consider the test file here: https://github.com/code-423n4/2021-12-sublime/blob/main/test/CreditLines/2.spec.ts. If the code on line 238 is changed from let _autoLiquidation: boolean = true; to let _autoLiquidation: boolean = false;, all the test cases will still pass. This confirms the issue, as the final test case “Liquidate credit line” has the admin as the liquidator, which should not work in non-autoLiquidations since they are not the lender.

Tools Used

Inspection and confirmed with Hardhat.

Add the following require statement somewhere in the liquidate function:

require(
creditLineConstants[_id].autoLiquidation ||
msg.sender == creditLineConstants[_id].lender,
"not autoLiquidation and not lender");

[H-07] SavingsAccount withdrawAll and switchStrategy can freeze user funds by ignoring possible strategy liquidity issues

Submitted by hyh, also found by cmichel

Impact

Full withdrawal and moving funds between strategies can lead to wrong accounting if the corresponding market has tight liquidity, which can be the case at least for AaveYield. That is, as the whole amount is required to be moved at once from Aave, both withdrawAll and switchStrategy will incorrectly account for partial withdrawal as if it was full whenever the corresponding underlying yield pool had liquidity issues.

withdrawAll will delete user entry, locking the user funds in the strategy: user will get partial withdrawal and have the corresponding accounting entry removed, while the remaining actual funds will be frozen within the system.

switchStrategy will subtract full number of shares for the _amount requested from the old strategy, while adding lesser partial number of shares for _tokensReceived to the new one with the same effect of freezing user’s funds within the system.

Proof of Concept

SavingsAccount.withdrawAll https://github.com/code-423n4/2021-12-sublime/blob/main/contracts/SavingsAccount/SavingsAccount.sol#L286

SavingsAccount.switchStrategy: https://github.com/code-423n4/2021-12-sublime/blob/main/contracts/SavingsAccount/SavingsAccount.sol#L152

When full withdrawal or strategy switch is performed it is one withdraw via unlockTokens without checking the amount received.

In the same time the withdraw can fail for example for the strategy switch if old strategy is having liquidity issues at the moment, i.e. Aave market is currently have utilization rate too high to withdraw the amount requested given current size of the lending pool.

Aave unlockTokens return is correctly not matched with amount requested: https://github.com/code-423n4/2021-12-sublime/blob/main/contracts/yield/AaveYield.sol#L217

But, for example, withdrawAll ignores the fact that some funds can remain in the strategy and deletes the use entry after one withdraw attempt: https://github.com/code-423n4/2021-12-sublime/blob/main/contracts/SavingsAccount/SavingsAccount.sol#L294 https://github.com/code-423n4/2021-12-sublime/blob/main/contracts/SavingsAccount/SavingsAccount.sol#L312

switchStrategy removes the old entry completely: https://github.com/code-423n4/2021-12-sublime/blob/main/contracts/SavingsAccount/SavingsAccount.sol#L181

For both withdrawAll and switchStrategy the immediate fix is to account for tokens received in both cases, which are _amount after unlockTokens for withdrawAll and _tokensReceived for switchStrategy.

More general handling of the liquidity issues ideally to be addressed architecturally, given the potential issues with liquidity availability any strategy withdrawals can be done as follows:

1. Withdraw what is possible on demand, leave the amount due as is, i.e. do not commit to completing the action in one go and notify the user the action was partial (return actual amount)
2. Save to query and repeat for the remainder funds on the next similar action (this can be separate flag triggered mode)

ritik99 (Sublime) disagreed with severity:

The above issue requires making a few assumptions - (i) the underlying yield protocol does not have sufficient reserves to facilitate the withdrawal of a single user, (ii) the user attempts to withdraw all their assets during such times of insufficient reserves.

We agree that the above could be a possibility, but would be unlikely. The underlying yield protocols undergo an interest rate spike during high utilization ratios to bring reserves back to normal levels, and some revert if they cannot withdraw the necessary amount (for eg, Compound). During live deployment, only those strategies that work expectedly would be onboarded, while others wouldn’t (for eg, Aave as a strategy wouldn’t be integrated until their wrappers for aTokens are ready for use). Hence we suggest reducing severity to (2) medium-risk

also similar to #144

0xean (judge) commented:

While I understand the argument regarding this being an unlikely scenario, I don’t believe that is a sufficient reason to downgrade the issue give the impact to a user and the lost funds.

2 — Med: Assets not at direct risk, but the function of the protocol or its availability could be impacted, or leak value with a hypothetical attack path with stated assumptions, but external requirements.

In this scenario - Assets are at a direct risk.

[H-08] Possibility to drain SavingsAccount contract assets

Submitted by kemmio

Impact

A malicious actor can manipulate switchStrategy() function in a way to withdraw tokens that are locked in SavingsAccount contract (the risk severity should be reviewed)

Proof of Concept

Firstly an attacker need to deploy a rogue strategy contract implementing IYield.getSharesForTokens() and IYield.unlockTokens() functions and calling switchStrategy() with _currentStrategy = ROGUECONTRACTADDRESS (_newStrategy can be any valid strategy e.g. NoYield)

https://github.com/code-423n4/2021-12-sublime/blob/main/contracts/SavingsAccount/SavingsAccount.sol#L160

require(_amount != 0, 'SavingsAccount::switchStrategy Amount must be greater than zero');

Bypass this check by setting _amount > 0, since it will be overwritten in line https://github.com/code-423n4/2021-12-sublime/blob/main/contracts/SavingsAccount/SavingsAccount.sol#L162

_amount = IYield(_currentStrategy).getSharesForTokens(_amount, _token);

getSharesForTokens() should be implemented to always return 0, hence to bypass the overflow in lines https://github.com/code-423n4/2021-12-sublime/blob/main/contracts/SavingsAccount/SavingsAccount.sol#L164-L167

balanceInShares[msg.sender][_token][_currentStrategy] = balanceInShares[msg.sender][_token][_currentStrategy].sub(
_amount,
'SavingsAccount::switchStrategy Insufficient balance'
);

since balanceInShares[msg.sender][_token][_currentStrategy] == 0 and 0-0 will not overflow

The actual amount to be locked is saved in line https://github.com/code-423n4/2021-12-sublime/blob/main/contracts/SavingsAccount/SavingsAccount.sol#L169

uint256 _tokensReceived = IYield(_currentStrategy).unlockTokens(_token, _amount);

the rouge unlockTokens() can check asset balance of the contract and return the full amount

After that some adjustment are made to set approval for the token or to handle native assets case https://github.com/code-423n4/2021-12-sublime/blob/main/contracts/SavingsAccount/SavingsAccount.sol#L171-L177

uint256 _ethValue;
} else {
}
_amount = _tokensReceived;

Finally the assets are locked in the locked strategy and shares are allocated on attackers acount https://github.com/code-423n4/2021-12-sublime/blob/main/contracts/SavingsAccount/SavingsAccount.sol#L179-L181

uint256 _sharesReceived = IYield(_newStrategy).lockTokens{value: _ethValue}(address(this), _token, _tokensReceived);

balanceInShares[msg.sender][_token][_newStrategy] = balanceInShares[msg.sender][_token][_newStrategy].add(_sharesReceived);

Proof of Concept

import "@openzeppelin/contracts/token/ERC20/IERC20.sol";

contract Attacker{
function getSharesForTokens(uint256 amount, address token) external payable  returns(uint256){
return 0;
}
function unlockTokens(address token, uint256 amount) external payable returns(uint256){
uint256 bal;
bal = msg.sender.balance;
else
bal = IERC20(token).balanceOf(msg.sender);
return bal;
}
}

Add a check for _currentStrategy to be from strategy list like the one in line https://github.com/code-423n4/2021-12-sublime/blob/main/contracts/SavingsAccount/SavingsAccount.sol#L159

require(IStrategyRegistry(strategyRegistry).registry(_newStrategy), 'SavingsAccount::_newStrategy do not exist');

ritik99 (Sublime) disputed:

The savings account contract doesn’t hold any tokens, so it is not possible to lock tokens in a new strategy, hence this attack will not work. Nevertheless it is something we will explore further to limit unexpected state changes

0xean (judge) commented:

Based on the review of the warden I believe this is a valid attack path. This line would need to change to the amount of tokens that are to be “stolen” but otherwise this does seem accurate.

bal = IERC20(token).balanceOf(msg.sender);

[H-09] PriceOracle Does Not Filter Price Feed Outliers

Submitted by leastwood

Impact

If for whatever reason the Chainlink oracle returns a malformed price due to oracle manipulation or a malfunctioned price, the result will be passed onto users, causing unintended consequences as a result.

In the same time it’s possible to construct mitigation mechanics for such cases, so user economics be affected by sustainable price movements only. As price outrages provide a substantial attack surface for the project it’s worth adding some complexity to the implementation.

Proof of Concept

https://github.com/code-423n4/2021-12-sublime/blob/main/contracts/PriceOracle.sol#L149-L161

function getLatestPrice(address num, address den) external view override returns (uint256, uint256) {
uint256 _price;
uint256 _decimals;
if (_decimals != 0) {
return (_price, _decimals);
}
(_price, _decimals) = getUniswapLatestPrice(num, den);
if (_decimals != 0) {
return (_price, _decimals);
}
revert("PriceOracle::getLatestPrice - Price Feed doesn't exist");
}

The above code outlines how prices are utilised regardless of their actual value (assuming it is always a non-zero value).

Consider querying both the Chainlink oracle and Uniswap pool for latest prices, ensuring that these two values are within some upper/lower bounds of each other. It may also be useful to track historic values and ensure that there are no sharp changes in price. However, the first option provides a level of simplicity as UniswapV3’s TWAP implementation is incredibly resistant to flash loan attacks. Hence, the main issue to address is a malfunctioning Chainlink oracle.

ritik99 (Sublime) disputed:

The described suggestion is fairly complex - besides the increase in code complexity, we’d also have to decide the bounds within which the Uniswap and Chainlink oracles should report prices that won’t be trivial. We’ve also noted in the assumptions section of our contest repo that oracles are assumed to be accurate

0xean (judge) commented:

” We expect these feeds to be fairly reliable.” - Based on this quote, I am going to leave this open at the current risk level. These are valid changes that could significantly reduce the risk of the implementation and unintended liquidations.

Fairly reliable != 100% reliable

[H-10] Wrong implementation of NoYield.sol#emergencyWithdraw()

Submitted by WatchPug, also found by 0x1f8b

https://github.com/code-423n4/2021-12-sublime/blob/9df1b7c4247f8631647c7627a8da9bdc16db8b11/contracts/yield/NoYield.sol#L78-L83

function emergencyWithdraw(address _asset, address payable _wallet) external onlyOwner returns (uint256 received) {
}

received is not being assigned prior to L81, therefore, at L81, received is 0.

As a result, the emergencyWithdraw() does not work, in essence.

Recommendation

Change to:

function emergencyWithdraw(address _asset, address payable _wallet) external onlyOwner returns (uint256 received) {
}

0xean (judge) commented:

upgrading to High sev based on assets being “lost” directly. IE the emergency function will not work.

3 — High: Assets can be stolen/lost/compromised directly (or indirectly if there is a valid attack path that does not have hand-wavy hypotheticals).

[H-11] Unable To Call emergencyWithdraw ETH in NoYield Contract

Submitted by leastwood

Impact

The emergencyWithdraw function is implemented in all yield sources to allow the onlyOwner role to drain the contract’s balance in case of emergency. The contract considers ETH as a zero address asset. However, there is a call made on _asset which will revert if it is the zero address. As a result, ETH tokens can never be withdrawn from the NoYield contract in the event of an emergency.

Proof of Concept

Consider the case where _asset == address(0). An external call is made to check the contract’s token balance for the target _asset. However, this call will revert as _asset is the zero address. As a result, the onlyOwner role will never be able to withdraw ETH tokens during an emergency.

function emergencyWithdraw(address _asset, address payable _wallet) external onlyOwner returns (uint256 received) {
}

Affected function as per below: https://github.com/code-423n4/2021-12-sublime/blob/main/contracts/yield/NoYield.sol#L78-L83

Consider handling the case where _asset is the zero address, i.e. the asset to be withdrawn under emergency is the ETH token.

Upgrading to Sev 3 in line with #4 / #115 as this results in funds being stuck in the contract.

Medium Risk Findings (8)

[M-01] Ether can be locked in the PoolFactory contract without a way to retrieve it

Submitted by broccolirob

If a borrower calls the createPool function with a non-zero value, but also includes an ERC20 token address for _collateralToken, then the Ether value sent will be locked in the PoolFactory contract forever.

In the _createPool function, a _collateralToken address other than the zero address will set the amount variable to zero. That amount variable will be passed to create2 which will send 0 wei to the newly created Pool contract.


uint256 amount = _collateralToken == address(0) ? _collateralAmount : 0;

Impact

A borrower can accidentally lock Ether in the PoolFactory without the ability to retrieve it.

Proof of Concept

A borrower reuses a script they made to create a pool and deposit collateral. They intend to deposit Ether as collateral so they send value with the transaction, but forget to change the _collateralToken address to address(0). The Pool contract will be deployed using the _collateralToken, and will lock the Ether sent in the PoolFactory

Tools Used

Manual analysis and Hardhat.

If msg.value is greater than 0, make sure the _collateralToken address is set to address(0).

ritik99 (Sublime) disputed and disagreed with severity:

We will add this check but the scenario laid out is more about sanity checks on the side of the end-user. Assets are not stolen or compromised directly but because of user error. Such cases are better handled via UI/UX. We would suggest a (1) Low rating given the likelihood

0xean (judge) commented:

Marking down to medium risk based on the c4 documentation and some external requirements on how this would have to occur.

2 — Med: Assets not at direct risk, but the function of the protocol or its availability could be impacted, or leak value with a hypothetical attack path with stated assumptions, but external requirements.

[M-02] CreditLine.liquidate doesn’t transfer borrowed ETH to a lender

Submitted by hyh, also found by 0x0x0x

Impact

Funds that are acquired from a liquidator and should be sent to a lender are left with the contract instead. The funds aren’t lost, but after the fact mitigation will require manual accounting and fund transfer for each CreditLine.liquidate usage.

Proof of Concept

ETH sent to CreditLine.liquidate by an external liquidator when autoLiquidation is enabled remain with the contract and aren’t transferred to the lender: https://github.com/code-423n4/2021-12-sublime/blob/main/contracts/CreditLine/CreditLine.sol#L1015

Add transfer to a lender for ETH case:

Now:

if (_borrowAsset == address(0)) {
uint256 _returnETH = msg.value.sub(_borrowTokens, 'Insufficient ETH to liquidate');
if (_returnETH != 0) {
(bool success, ) = msg.sender.call{value: _returnETH}('');
require(success, 'Transfer fail');
}
}

To be:

if (_borrowAsset == address(0)) {
uint256 _returnETH = msg.value.sub(_borrowTokens, 'Insufficient ETH to liquidate');

(bool success, ) = _lender.call{value: _borrowTokens}('');
require(success, 'liquidate: Transfer failed');

if (_returnETH != 0) {
(success, ) = msg.sender.call{value: _returnETH}('');
require(success, 'liquidate: Return transfer failed');
}
}

ritik99 (Sublime) confirmed

[M-03] Collateral can be deposited in a finished pool

Submitted by pedroais

Proof of Concept

The depositCollateral function doesn’t check the status of the pool so collateral can be deposited in a finished loan. This can happen by mistake and all funds will be lost.

https://github.com/code-423n4/2021-12-sublime/blob/9df1b7c4247f8631647c7627a8da9bdc16db8b11/contracts/Pool/Pool.sol#L207

Require loan status to be collection or active in the depositCollateral function.

ritik99 (Sublime) disagreed with severity:

We will add a check for this. The issue however stems from user error. Sending assets to an address without proper checks does not constitute an attack path imo. We would suggest a rating of (1) Low or (0) non-critical given the low likelihood and the impact of the attack (only the user making the incorrect transaction is affected)

0xean (judge) commented:

2 — Med: Assets not at direct risk, but the function of the protocol or its availability could be impacted, or leak value with a hypothetical attack path with stated assumptions, but external requirements.

This definitely qualifies as “external requirements” and a simple check would assist in avoid it.

Submitted by gpersoon

Impact

Note: a master can prevent this by calling cancelAddressLinkingRequest(), but this doesn’t seem logical to do

Proof of Concept

https://github.com/code-423n4/2021-12-sublime/blob/e688bd6cd3df7fefa3be092529b4e2d013219625/contracts/Verification/Verification.sol#L129-L154

    function unlinkAddress(address _linkedAddress) external {
...
}
}

...
delete pendingLinkAddresses[_linkedAddress][msg.sender]; // only location where pendingLinkAddresses is reset

delete pendingLinkAddresses[msg.sender][_masterAddress]; 

ritik99 (Sublime) confirmed

[M-05] Extension voting threshold check needs to rerun on each transfer

Submitted by cmichel

The Extension contract correctly reduces votes from the from address of a transfer and adds it to the to address of the transfer (in case both of them voted on it before), but it does not rerun the voting logic in voteOnExtension that actually grants the extension. This leads to issues where an extension should be granted but is not:

POC
• to address has 100 tokens and votes for the extension
• from address has 100 tokens but does not vote for the extension and transfers the 100 tokens to to
• to now has 200 tokens, removeVotes is run, the totalExtensionSupport is increased by 100 to 200. In theory, the threshold is reached and the vote should pass if to could call voteOnExtension again.
• But their call to voteOnExtension with the new balance will fail as they already voted on it (lastVotedExtension == _extensionVoteEndTime). The extension is not granted.

Impact

Extensions that should be granted after a token transfer are not granted.

Rerun the threshold logic in removeVotes as it has the potential to increase the total support if to voted for the extension but from did not.

ritik99 (Sublime) confirmed

[M-06] NoYield.sol Tokens with fee on transfer are not supported

Submitted by WatchPug

There are ERC20 tokens that charge fee for every transfer() or transferFrom().

In the current implementation, NoYield.sol#lockTokens() assumes that the received amount is the same as the transfer amount, and uses it to calculate sharesReceived amounts.

As a result, in unlockTokens(), later users may not be able to successfully withdraw their tokens, as it may revert at L141 for insufficient balance.

https://github.com/code-423n4/2021-12-sublime/blob/9df1b7c4247f8631647c7627a8da9bdc16db8b11/contracts/yield/NoYield.sol#L93-L106

function lockTokens(
uint256 amount
) external payable override onlySavingsAccount nonReentrant returns (uint256 sharesReceived) {
require(amount != 0, 'Invest: amount');
} else {
require(msg.value == amount, 'Invest: ETH amount');
}
}

https://github.com/code-423n4/2021-12-sublime/blob/9df1b7c4247f8631647c7627a8da9bdc16db8b11/contracts/yield/NoYield.sol#L134-L144

function _unlockTokens(address asset, uint256 amount) internal returns (uint256 received) {
require(amount != 0, 'Invest: amount');
(bool success, ) = savingsAccount.call{value: received}('');
require(success, 'Transfer failed');
} else {
}
}
Recommendation

Consider comparing before and after balance to get the actual transferred amount.

ritik99 (Sublime) acknowledged and disagreed with severity

[M-07] AaveYield: Misspelled external function name making functions fail

Submitted by 0xngndev

Impact

In AaveYield.sol the functions:

• liquidityToken
• _withdrawETH
• _depositETH

Make a conditional call to IWETHGateway(wethGateway).getAWETHAddress()

This function does not exist in the wethGateway contract, causing these function to fail with the error "Fallback not allowed".

The function they should be calling is getWethAddress() without the “A”.

Small yet dangerous typo.

Mitigation Steps

Simply modify:

IWETHGateway(wethGateway).getAWETHAddress()

to:

IWETHGateway(wethGateway).getWETHAddress()

In the functions mentioned above.

ritik99 (Sublime) confirmed:

We were using an older version of the contracts that had this definition, will be updated accordingly

[M-08] Missing approve(0)

Submitted by sirhashalot, also found by Jujic, and sirhashalot

Impact

There are 3 instances where the IERC20.approve() function is called only once without setting the allowance to zero. Some tokens, like USDT, require first reducing the address’ allowance to zero by calling approve(_spender, 0). Transactions will revert when using an unsupported token like USDT (see the approve() function requirement at line 199).

Proof of Concept

Note: the usage of approve() in yield/CompoundYield.sol (lines 211-212), in yield/YearnYield.sol (lines 211-212), and in yield/AaveYield.sol (lines 297-298) do not need modification since it they already use the recommended approach. Additionally the usage of approve() in yield/AaveYield.sol:307 likely does not need modification since that approve function only handles ETH.

Use approve(_spender, 0) to set the allowance to zero immediately before each of the existing approve() calls.

moving to medium risk as the availability of the protocol is affected.

2 — Med: Assets not at direct risk, but the function of the protocol or its availability could be impacted, or leak value with a hypothetical attack path with stated assumptions, but external requirements.

Disclosures

C4 is an open organization governed by participants in the community.

C4 Contests incentivize the discovery of exploits, vulnerabilities, and bugs in smart contracts. Security researchers are rewarded at an increasing rate for finding higher-risk issues. Contest submissions are judged by a knowledgeable security researcher and solidity developer and disclosed to sponsoring developers. C4 does not conduct formal verification regarding the provided code but instead provides final verification.

C4 does not provide any guarantee or warranty regarding the security of this project. All smart contract software should be used at the sole risk and responsibility of users.