Contest ran 13 May 202215 May 2022

2 day contest

Sturdy contest

The first protocol for interest-free borrowing and high yield lending.

$30,000 USDC

Total Awards

Sturdy contest details

Protocol overview

Sturdy is a protocol for interest-free borrowing and high yield lending.

Lenders deposit stablecoins that they want to earn yield on while borrowers provide collateral and take out loans at no interest (interest rates will kick in above certain utilization rates, but this functionality is out of scope). Sturdy accomplishes this by staking collateral provided by borrowers in third party protocols like Yearn, Lido, and Convex. The yield from collateral staking is periodically harvested, swapped to stablecoins, and distributed to stablecoin lenders.

Sturdy forked Aave V2 contracts for its underlying accounting and lending pool mechanics. In order to convert non-interest bearing tokens ('external assets', e.g. ETH) to their interest bearing equivalent ('internal assets', e.g. stETH), Sturdy uses modules called 'vaults.' When users deposit external assets to a vault, the vault immediately stakes it, converting it to an internal asset, and deposits it to the lending pool. When users want to withdraw their collateral, the vault withdraws the internal asset from the lending pool, unstakes it, and returns it to the user. The user can also deposit or withdraw internal assets directly from the lending pool by interacting directly with the smart contracts.

PoolAdmin can harvest the yield by calling a function that distributes excess staked collateral to lenders after swapping it to stablecoins. This can take on a different form based on the specific collateral asset and staking strategy as described for each vault contract below.

The full repository (with tests) can be found here.

Contest scope

The focus of the contest is to find any methods of stealing funds belonging to users. We would highlight ConvexCurveLPVault.sol as a contract that deserves particular attention because it has not been audited and contains lots of novel logic. All five contracts listed below are in scope.

Smart contracts

GeneralVault.sol (83 sLOC) Template that all other vaults inherit. It provides a skeleton for the basic functions of every vault contract including:

  • depositCollateral: called by the borrower. Stakes the collateral (via _depositToYieldPool) and then deposits to LendingPool.sol
  • withdrawCollateral: called by the borrower. Computes amount of collateral to withdraw (via _getWithdrawalAmount), withdraws this amount from LendingPool.sol, then unstakes the token and transfers it to the borrower (via _withdrawFromYieldPool)
  • processYield: called by the PoolAdmin. Computes the amount of yield (via getYield, withdraws this yield from the lending pool, and transfers it to YieldManager.sol

LidoVault.sol (68 sLOC) Vault contract that enables users to deposit ETH as collateral and stakes it in Lido. This vault is unique in that (pre-merge) borrowers cannot withdraw the base token 1:1. They can either withdraw their collateral as stETH or withdraw via the Curve pool, with an exchange rate based on current market conditions.

Yield accrues via stETH rebasing. To compute yield, the vault takes the difference between the amount of ETH deposited and the amount of stETH in the contract. The difference is swapped to ETH and transferred to YieldManager.sol.

ConvexCurveLPVault.sol (81 sLOC) Vault contract that enables users to deposit Curve LP tokens as collateral and stakes them in Convex. This vault is unique in that Convex does not have a "receipt" token that it provides after staking, meaning there is no natural internal asset. Instead, this contracts mints an ERC20 token called _internalToken via SturdyInternalAsset.sol. _internalToken is the token that gets deposited to LendingPool.sol, and is burned upon collateral withdrawal.

Yield accrues via CRV and CVX rewards from Convex staking. When yield is harvested, the vault transfers all CRV and CVX rewards to YieldManager.sol.

CollateralAdapter.sol (26 sLOC) Returns the address of an internal asset from the address of an external asset. This is used in LendingPool.sol's liquidation process.

YieldManager.sol (108 sLOC) Receives tokens from vaults, swaps them to stables, and distributes them to lenders. Currently, all tokens received are swapped to USDC via Uniswap. Then USDC is swapped to other stablecoins based on their proportion of total deposits via Curve. The goal of this design is to save gas by minimizing swaps without incurring significant slippage.

For example, if DAI makes up 20% of all stablecoin deposits, then 20% of the USDC is swapped to Dai. The yield is transferred to LendingPool.sol and the balance of each lender is automatically increased.


Name Description
Lender Users who deposit stablecoins to earn yield
Borrower Users who provide collateral and take out loans by borrowing stablecoins that have been deposited by lenders
PoolAdmin A permissioned role set by the protocol
LendingPool.sol An out of scope contract that interacts with several in scope contracts. LendingPool.sol exposes the user-oriented actions for depositing, withdrawing, borrowing, and repaying stablecoins, as well as the logic for liquidations. Vaults interact with LendingPool.sol when allowing the user to deposit or withdraw collateral.
External asset Non-interest bearing tokens like Curve LP tokens or ETH. These are the tokens that users typically interact with directly.
Internal asset Interest bearing tokens like stETH that are held in LendingPool.sol.